Black land is known as "giant panda in cultivated land", reporters found in my country’s Northeast Black San District, in the face of degenerative black soil, in recent years, there have been black land protection in Northeast, explore black soil protection model suitable for different regions, black The land is rewinding green and health, laying the foundation for stability of food production. Black Soil is the world’s recognized most fertile soil, which is extremely slow, which requires a 1 cm thick black soil to form a 1 cm thick requires 200-400. There are only three in the global black soil area, located on the Dneber River in Ukraine, the US Mississippi River Basin and the Northeast Plains in my country.
Northeast Plains is an important granary in my country.
Last year, the total production of the three provinces of Northeast is 27.37 billion pounds, accounting for more than one-fifth of the country.
According to the second national land survey data and the evaluation of the county cultivated land quality investigation, the cultivated land of the Typical Black Soil area of ??Northeast is about 100 million, including billions of men in Heilongjiang, accounting for%. The reporter went deep into the Northeast Songnen Plains and the Sanjiang Plain, some kinds of grain, the person in charge of the cooperative, and the black land was degraded, lost, and some soil organic matter continued to decline.
A large kind of grain in the north of Heilongjiang Province, once took the shovel in the face of the reporter, and did not dig the head of the head, and he revealed the loess. On July 9 this year, the Chinese Academy of Sciences released the "Northeast Black Land White Paper (2020) in Harbin, Heilongjiang, which is the first time to release black land white paper. This white paper pointed out that the thickness of the black land of Northeast China has decreased by 30% to 50%, and some areas are less than 20 cm, and the current black soil is still reduced at a rate of 1 to 2 mm per year.
Black Soil is thin, thin, hard, bringing challenges to sustainable development of agriculture.
Recently, the seven departments of agricultural rural areas jointly issued the "National Black Land Protection Project Implementation Plan (2021-2025)" presentation, my country will complete 100 million mu of black land protection during the "14th Five-Year Plan" period, the quality of black land is significantly improved. However, the dry land cultivated layer reached more than 30 cm, and the waterfield cultivated layer reached 20 to 25 cm, and the organic matter content of soil was increased by more than 10%.
After a rain, the corn, puzzling of Yang Xiuchun, a large grain, Yang Xiuchun, a large grain, Yang Xiuchun, a large grain, a long time. Yang Xiuchun grabbed a group of black soil, hand, loose, soft black soil. He said that these two years have passed the black soil protection measures such as straw, and the black land becomes soft. The capacity of water seepage capacity is improved, and the capacity of drought and protection is enhanced. The black land is "strong". Heilongjiang Province, Huichuan County, Yucheng Modern Agricultural Machinery Professional Cooperatives undertake black land protection utilization pilot, Zhao De Mountain, head of cooperative However, in the second year of implementing the pilot project of Black Soil Protection, they recognized the importance of black soil protection.
"A obvious change is that the soil has become loose, and now you can step on it, you can’t step on it.
Zhao De Mountain said. The soil has high quality, and the rice quality of Yuacui Modern agricultural machinery professional cooperatives is better. Last year’s rice sold 8 yuan more pounds. Zhao Deshan has more and more feelings to black soil, he said: "Protect black land Just like a child, you need to take care of your heart.
I have done comparison, and the grounds that are involved in black soil and have not participated, the yields and quality are significantly different.
"In June this year, the Standing Committee of the 13th National People’s Congress of Heilongjiang Province passed the" Standing Committee of the Heilongjiang Provincial People’s Congress on the Effective Strengthening Dark Land Protection Utilization ", further strengthening the assessment supervision of black soil protection, strictly prohibit stealing and illegal trading All kinds of behaviors that undermine black soil resources.
Heilongjiang Province will also introduce black land protection and use local regulations to provide rule of law protection for protecting black land and protecting national food security. The reporter found that although the black land protection has achieved remarkable results, the enthusiasm of farmers remains to be improved; the scope of the black land protection is limited, and the goal of the overall protection of black land is not achieved, and the black land protection task is still very difficult.
Li Xiujun, deputy director of the Northeast Geography and Agricultural Ecological Institute, China, said that my country’s black land protection field has a certain basis, but compared with developed countries, my country is in straw biological treatment, fertilizer technology innovation, agricultural intelligent production level. , Modern black land monitoring systems have to be further developed. "National Black Land Protection Project (2021-2025)" proposed, strengthen the top design, establish and improve the technology model and long-term mechanism for black land protection, one is to strengthen policy coordination, the second is to strengthen multi-collaboration, third is to strengthen the scale Demonstration to drive, improve the comprehensive benefits of black land protection and mobilize farmers to actively implement relevant measures.
Li Xiujun believes that black land governance protection is a systematic project that requires government, scientific and technological workers, and farmers, etc., but its fundamental approach has to rely on scientific and technological innovation, "use well" black land.
Guan Xin believes that the key to the Northeast Geography and Agricultural Ecological Institute of the Chinese Academy of Sciences believes that the key to black land protection is how to solve the problem of "use" and "raising".
By formulating a standard to standardize land planting protection, "use it well to raise" under the premise of solving food security issues. The Vice President of Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences came to never, increased black land protection to change the original production habits of farmers, strengthen the protection of supporting policies, so that farmers realize the importance of black land protection, helping farmers from Short-term interests go to the medium and long-term benefits.
(Reporter Wang Jian, Huang Teng).